Decontamination Effect of the Spindle and 222-Nanometer Krypton-Chlorine Excimer Lamp Combination against Pathogens on Apples and Bell Peppers
In this study, we developed a washing system capable of decontaminating fresh produce by combining the Spindle apparatus, which detaches microorganisms on sample surfaces, and a 222-nm krypton-chlorine excimer lamp (KrCl excilamp) (Sp-Ex) and investigated their decontamination effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) surfaces. Initial levels of the three pathogens were approximately 108 CFU/sample. Both E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium were reduced to below the detection limit (2.0 log CFU/sample) after 5 and 7 min of treatment on apple and bell pepper surfaces, respectively. The amounts of L. monocytogenes on apple and bell pepper surfaces were reduced by 4.26 and 5.48 logs, respectively, after 7 min of treatment. The decontamination effect of the Sp-Ex was influenced by the hydrophobicity of the sample surface as well as the microbial cell surface, and the decontamination effect decreased as the two hydrophobicity values increased. To improve the decontamination effect of the Sp-Ex, Tween 20, a surfactant that weakens the hydrophobic interaction between the sample surface and pathogenic bacteria, was incorporated into Sp-Ex processing. It was found that its decontamination effect was significantly ( P < 0.05) increased by the addition of 0.1% Tween 20. Sp-Ex did not cause significant quality changes in apple or bell pepper surfaces during 7 days storage following treatment ( P > 0.05). Our results suggest that Sp-Ex could be applied as a system to control pathogens in place of chemical sanitizer washing by the fresh-produce industry.
IMPORTANCE Although most fresh-produce processing currently controls pathogens by means of washing with sanitizers, there are still problems such as the generation of harmful substances and changes in product quality. A combination system composed of the Spindle and a 222-nm KrCl excilamp (Sp-Ex) developed in this study reduced pathogens on apple and bell pepper surfaces using sanitizer-free water without altering produce color and texture. This study demonstrates the potential of the Sp-Ex to replace conventional washing with sanitizers, and it can be used as baseline data for practical application by industry. In addition, implementation of the Sp-Ex developed in this study is expected not only to meet consumer preference for fresh, minimally processed produce but also to reduce human exposure to harmful chemicals while being beneficial to the environment.